Mineralogy of roofing slates – part I

Main Minerals

From a petrological point of view, the minerals constituents of a rock can be divided into primary, secondary and accessories minerals. The primary minerals are the original components of the rock, and their abundance is higher than 5%, while accessory minerals  are found in abundances below 5%. Finally, secondary minerals are result of the geological processes subsequent to the slate formation.

In roofing slates, depending on the author, the percentages of different minerals vary, but the characteristic minerals are the same.


Therefore, the characteristics minerals in roofing slates are quartz, chlorite and muscovite.


Usually present as small rounded fragments formed by metamorphism which caused the slates.

Quarzt grains in a slate sample from Galicia, Spain.

Quarzt grains in a slate sample from Galicia, Spain.


There are two types of chlorite, chamosite, rich in iron, and clinochlore, rich in magnesium. Generally chlorites are secondary minerals formed during metamorphism, and it is usual to find them partially replaced by muscovite, which is a key factor to distinguish them from the quartz.

Chlorite crystals. Slate sample from Galicia, Spain.

Chlorite crystals. Slate sample from Galicia, Spain.


Always forms the matrix of the slate, since it has a very small grain size and at the petrological microscope is seen as a dark background. It is also often found as needle-like crystals formed during and after metamorphism.

Mica needles, slate sample from Galica, Spain.

Mica needles, slate sample from Galica, Spain.

Table captions:

[1] Pizarras ES 1975. Fraser-Española, 1975. Pizarras, in: IGME (Ed.), Monografías de Rocas Industriales Madrid, p. 46.
[2] Lombardero, M., Regueiro, M., 1992. Spanish natural stone: Cladding the World. Industrial Minerals, 81-97.
[3] García-Guinea, J., Lombardero, M., Roberts, B., Taboada, J., 1997. Spanish Roofing Slate Deposits. Transactions of the Institute of Mineral Metallurgy, Section B 106, 205-214.
[4] Lombardero, M., Garcia-Guinea, J., Cárdenes, V., 2002. The Geology of Roofing Slate, in: Bristow, C., Ganis, B. (Eds.), Industrial Minerals and the Extractive Industry Geology. Geological Society Publishing House, Bath, pp. 59-66.
[5] Ward, C., Gómez-Fernandez, F., 2003. Quantitative mineralogical analisis of spanish roofing slates using the Rielveld method and X-ray powder diffraction data. Eur. J. Mineral. 15, 1051-1062.
[6] Rodríguez-Sastre, M.A., Calleja, L., 2004. Caracterización del comportamiento elástico de materiales pizarrosos del Sinclinal de Truchas mediante ultrasonidos. Trabajos de Geología 24, 153-164.
[7] Cambronero, L.E.G., Ruiz-Román, J.M., Ruiz-Prieto, J.M., 2005. Obtención de espumas a partir de residuos de pizarra. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio 44, 368-372.
[8] http://www.schieferlexikon.de/
[9] Cárdenes, V., Prieto, B., Sanmartín, P., Ferrer, P., Rubio, A., Monterroso, C., 2012. The influence of chemical-mineralogical composition on the color and brightness of Iberian roofing slates. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 24, 460-467.
Abbreviations: Q: Cuarzo, Chm: Chamosita, Ms: Moscovita, Alb: Albita, Rt: Rutilo, Ill: Illmenita, Zr: Zircón, Trm: Turmalina, Ap: Apatito, Prg: Paragonita, Ana: Anatasa.

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One Response to Mineralogy of roofing slates – part I

  1. Thank you for sharing valuable information. Nice post. I enjoyed reading this post. The whole blog is very nice found some good stuff and good information here Thanks..Also visit my page Industrial Roofing

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